The EFTA States signed a Free Trade Agreement with Israel in Geneva, Switzerland, on 17 September 1992. The Agreement entered into force on 1 January 1993. Modernised and expanded bilateral agricultural agreements were signed in Geneva on 22 November 2018. These new agreements entered into force on 1 August 2021 and replace the existing ones. Information on the new agreements can be found further down this page.
The Agreement covers trade in industrial products as well as fish and marine products. In addition, bilateral agricultural agreements between the individual EFTA States (Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) and Israel have been concluded which form part of the instruments creating the free trade area.
Among the objectives of the Agreement (Article 1) is the progressive liberalisation of trade in goods in conformity with Article XXIV of the GATT. As of 1 January 1993, virtually all customs duties on trade in industrial goods and fish and other marine products were eliminated. The Agreement includes provisions relating to the elimination of customs duties and other trade barriers as well as other trade-related disciplines such as rules of competition, protection of intellectual property, public procurement, state monopolies, state aid, and payments and transfers. Under the Agreement a Joint Committee is established which supervises the Agreement.
The Agreement consists of 37 Articles, eight Annexes, four Protocols and a Record of Understanding. The Agreement covers the following main subjects:
- Trade in Goods
- Rules of Origin
- Protection of Intellectual Property (IPR)
- Government Procurement
- Institutional Provisions
- Dispute Settlement
Trade in Goods
The Agreement provides for effective market access for industrial goods in terms of tariffs and rules of origin, creating EFTA and EU parity for EFTA exports to Israel. As from entry into force all industrial goods originating in the EFTA States or Israel enjoy duty free access (Article 4).
Fish and marine products
The Agreement covers trade in all fish and other marine products (Article 2 and Annex II). The EFTA States and Israel grant duty free access on virtually all imports of fish products.
Trade in agricultural products is covered in three bilateral agricultural agreements negotiated between the respective EFTA State (Iceland, Norway and Switzerland) and Israel. These agreements form part of the instruments establishing the free trade area and are subject to the relevant disciplines for trade in goods in the main agreement. They provide for substantial concessions on both sides, while taking into account the respective sensitivities.
Rules of Origin
The rules of origin for industrial goods (Protocol B) concerning the definition of the concept of originating products and the methods for administrative co-operation, are based on the current pan-European model, maintaining the general structure and the substance of the European standard rules. The specific list rules (Annex II to Protocol B) are also based on the current pan-European model.
Protection of Intellectual Property (IPR)
The provisions on protection of intellectual property rights (Article 15 and Annex V) covers, inter alia, patents, trademarks and copyright and geographical indications. The level of protection in certain areas goes beyond what is stipulated under the WTO Agreement on Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property, taking into account the principles of most favoured nation treatment and of national treatment.
The Article on public procurement (Article 14) contains a review clause with a view to further liberalisation of the public procurement markets in the Partner countries.
Regarding competition (Article 17), the agreement includes provisions on co-operation and exchange of information with the aim of ensuring and facilitating the enforcement of the Parties' respective competition laws.
A Joint Committee comprising the EFTA States and Israel supervises the implementation of the free trade agreement (Articles 26 and 27).
Consultations are the fundamental mechanism of dispute settlement between the FTA partners. The agreement implies that the Parties are to endeavour to solve any differences between them on the interpretation and application of the agreement by direct consultations, and, if need be, through consultations in the Joint Committee. For cases where the consultations do not led to a satisfactory solution, the Parties may revert to arbitration (Article 25bis). Annex VIII (Annex VIII) governs the constitution and functioning of the tribunal.
Annexes, Protocols and Record of Understanding
|Decision||Subject||Adopted||Entry into force|
|No. 1/2018||Amendment to Protocol A||21.11.2018||01.08.2021|
|No. 2/2018||Amendment to Annex I||21.11.2018||01.08.2021|
|No. 1/2006||Amendments to Articles 18 and 23 and Annex II, and deletion of Annexes VI and VII concerning State Aid||03.07.2006||05.07.2010|
|No. 4/2005||Amendment to Article 22 concerning balance of payment difficulties||15.06.2005||11.07.2008|
|No. 3/2005||Protocol E on mutual administrative assistance in customs matters||15.06.2005||11.07.2008|
|No. 2/2005||Amendment to Protocol B||15.06.2005||01.07.2005|
|No. 1/2005||Administrative Arrangement concerning the implementation of Protocol B and Annex II of the bilateral agricultural agreements||15.06.2005||01.07.2005|
|No. 2/2003||Annex II||01.08.2003||01.08.2003|
|No. 1/2003||Annex I||01.08.2003||01.08.2003|
|No. 2/1999||Deletion of Annex IV||24.06.1999||24.06.1999|
|No. 1/1999||Amendment to Annex II||24.06.1999||01.01.2000|
|No. 6/1997||Amendment to Annex VI to Protocol B||12.11.1997||01.01.1998|
|No. 5/1997||Introduction of a new Article 25 Bis and Annex VIII on arbitration procedure||12.11.1997||29.08.2006|
|No. 4/1997||Amendment to Annex IV (deleted by Decision No. 2/1999)||12.11.1997||12.11.1997|
|No. 3/1997||Deletion of Annex III||12.11.1997||12.11.1997|
|No. 2/1997||Deletion of Protocol C||12.11.1997||12.11.1997|
|No. 1/1997||Amendment to Annex I||12.11.1997||12.11.1997|
|No. 5/1996||Amendment to Article 37 concerning depositary of the Agreement||14.02.1996||13.05.2004|
|No. 4/1996||Amendment of Annex IV (deleted by Decision No. 2/1999)||13.02.1996||13.02.1996|
|No. 3/1996||Amendment of Annex III (deleted by Decision No. 3/1997)||13.02.1996||13.02.1996|
|No. 2/1996||Amendment to Protocol C (deleted by Decision No. 2/1997)||13.02.1996||13.02.1996|
|No. 1/1996||Amendment to Protocol A||13.02.1996||13.02.1996|
|No. 4/1993||Amendment to, and corrections of technical errors in Annexes and Protocols to the Agreement||11/12.11.1993||12.11.1993|
|No. 3/1993||Amendment to Protocol A||11/12.11.1993||12.11.1993|
|No. 2/1993||Sub-committee on customs and origin matters||11/12.11.1993||12.11.1993|
|No. 1/1993||Rules of Procedure of the Joint Committee||11/12.11.1993||12.11.1993|
For EFTA-Israel trade statistics, see EFTA Trade Statistics Tool