Turkey

Relation: 
Entry into force: 
01 April 1992

The Free Trade Agreement concluded with Turkey was the first among EFTA’s network of Free Trade Agreements. The Agreement between the EFTA States and Turkey was signed in Geneva, Switzerland, on 10 December 1991

Summary

The Agreement covers trade in industrial products as well as fish and marine products and processed agricultural products. The transitional period ended on 1 January 1999. In addition, bilateral agricultural agreements between the individual EFTA countries and Turkey have been concluded which form part of the instruments creating the free trade area.

The objectives of the Agreement (Article 1) are among other to promote, through the expansion of reciprocal trade, the harmonious development of economic relations between the Parties. The Agreement includes provisions relating to the elimination of customs duties and other trade barriers as well as other trade-related disciplines such as rules of competition, protection of intellectual property, public procurement, state monopolies, state aid, and payments and transfers. A Joint Committee, which supervises the Agreement, is established under the Agreement.

 

Content of the Free Trade Agreement

The Agreement consists of a total of 35 Articles, 11 Annexes, 3 Protocols, and one Record of Understandings, covering the following subjects:

  • Trade in Goods
  • Public Procurement
  • Intellectual Property
  • Competition
  • State Aid
  • Joint Committee and Dispute Settlement

 

Trade in Goods

Turkey is one of the most important partner countries among EFTA’s 20 free trade partners and an important market for EFTA’s exports, with significant growth potential.

Bilateral trade in goods in 2001 amounted to 1,307.3 million USD (EFTA exports amounting to 920 million USD, whereas Turkey's exports to the EFTA States represented 382.3 million USD.

Rules of Origin

The rules of origin for industrial goods (Protocol B) concerning the definition of the concept of originating products and the methods for administrative co-operation, are based on the current pan-European model, maintaining the general structure and the substance of the European standard rules. The specific list rules (Annex II to Protocol B) are also based on the current pan-European model.

Industrial Goods

The Agreement provides for effective market access for industrial goods in terms of tariffs and rules of origin, creating EFTA and EU parity for EFTA exports to Turkey. Since 1 January 1999 all industrial goods - except certain products of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) - originating in the EFTA States have enjoyed duty-free access into Turkey. Industrial goods originating in Turkey have benefited from duty-free access to the EFTA States as of entry into force of the Agreement.

Fish and marine products

The Agreement covers trade in all fish and other marine products (Article 4 and Annex II). The EFTA States and Turkey grant each other duty free access on imports of all fish and marine products.

Agricultural products

Trade in processed agricultural products are covered in a Protocol under the main Agreement (Protocol A). The Protocol grants concessions for products such as sugar confectionary, pasta, prepared foods, sauces and preparations, soups, waters etc.

Trade in basic agricultural products is covered in three bilateral agricultural agreements negotiated between the respective EFTA State Iceland, Norway and Switzerland/Liechtenstein and Turkey. These agreements form part of the instruments establishing the free trade area. They provide for substantial concessions on both sides, while taking into account the respective sensitivities. Each agreement contains specific rules of origin, generally based on the “wholly-obtained” criteria.

 

Public Procurement

The Article on public procurement (Article 14) contains a review clause with a view to further liberalize the public procurement markets of the Parties.

 

Intellectual Property

The provisions on protection of intellectual property rights (Article 15 and a new Annex XII) covers, inter alia, patents, trademarks and copyright and geographical indications.

The level of protection in certain areas goes beyond what is stipulated under the WTO Agreement on Trade Related aspects of Intellectual Property, taking into account the principles of most favoured nation treatment and of national treatment.

 

Competition

Regarding competition (Article 17), the Agreement includes provisions on co-operation and exchange of information in the Joint Committee meeting with the aim of ensuring that the benefits of the Agreement are not perturbed by private anti- competitive behaviour.

 

State Aid

The Agreement contains comprehensive and specific rules governing the granting of state aid by public authorities of the partner countries (Article 18 and Annex X). The objective of these provisions is to ensure that aid granted by the authorities to private entities do not distort, or threaten to distort, competition among undertakings in the applicable territories of the agreement. The Parties shall ensure transparency of state aid measures by exchanging information as provided for in Annex XI (Annex XI).

 

Joint Committee and Dispute Settlement

A Joint Committee comprising the EFTA States and Turkey supervises the implementation of the free trade agreement (Articles 25 and 26).

Consultations are the fundamental mechanism of dispute settlement between the FTA partners. The agreement implies that the Parties are to endeavour to solve any differences between them on the interpretation and application of the agreement by direct consultations, and, if need be, through consultations in the Joint Committee.

Annexes and Record of Understanding
Trade in Goods Annex I Referred to in Sub-Paragraph 1 (a) of Article 2    
  Protocol A Concerning Products referred to in Sub-Paragraph 1 (b) of Article 2 Table to Protocol A  
  Annex II Referred to in Sub-Paragraph 1 (c) of Article 2    
  Protocol B Concerning the definition of the concept of "Originating Products" and Methods of Administrative Co-operation Annex I Introductory Notes
      Annex II List Rules
      Annex IIIA Movement Certificate EUR.1
      Annex IIIB Movement Certificate EUR-MED
      Annex IVA Invoice Declaration
      Annex IVB Invoice DeclarationEUR-MED
      Annex V Stamps (Deleted)
  Annex III Products to which a Particular Timetable for the Duty Reductions applies (deleted)    
  Annex IV Referred to in Paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 4 (deleted)    
  Annex V Referred to in Paragraph 3 of Article 4 (deleted)    
  Annex VI Referred to in Paragraph 1 of Article 5 (deleted)    
  Annex VII Referred to in Paragraph 2 of Article 6 (deleted)    
  Annex VIII Referred to in Paragraph 2 of Article 7 (deleted)    
  Annex IX Referred to in Article 10 (deleted)    
  Annex X Referred to in Paragraph 2 of Article 18 (deleted)    
  Annex XI Referred to in Paragraph 4 of Article 18 (deleted)    
  Protocol C Concerning the treatment that may be applied by Liechtenstein and Switzerland to imports of certain products subject to the scheme for building up compulsory reserves    
  Protocol D Concerning mutual administrative assistance in Customs Matters referred to in Article 3 (3) of the Agreement    
  Protocol E Mutual recognition of Conformity Assessment of Products    
IPR Annex XII Referred to in Article 15    
Other   Record of Understanding    

 

Bilateral Agreements on Agriculture

 

Iceland-Turkey
Norway-Turkey
Switzerland-Turkey - English / French / German / Italian

 

Joint Committee Decisions

 

Decision Subject Adopted Entry into force
2017
No. 1/2017 Amendment to Protocol B 06.04.2017  
2009
No. 3/2009 Mutual Recognition of Conformity Assessment of Products 03.12.2009 05.07.2011
No. 2/2009 Amendment to Protocol B 03.12.2009 01.06.2011
No. 1/2009 Amendment to Protocol A 03.12.2009 01.06.2011
2006
No. 3/2006 Protocol B Amendment to Euro-med 31.05.2006 01.09.2007
No. 2/2006 Protocol A 31.05.2006 01.02.2008
No. 1/2006 Annex I 31.05.2006 01.02.2008
2005
No. 1/2005 Article 18 State Aid 15.05.2005 15.08.2011
2004
No. 2/2004 Deletion of Annex VIII 01.07.2004 01.07.2004
No. 1/2004 Deletion of Annex IV 01.07.2004 01.07.2004
2002
No. 3/2002 Amendment to Protocol A 05.11.2002 01.01.2003
No. 2/2002 Annex II 05.11.2002 01.01.2003
No. 1/2002 Amendments to Protocol B 05.11.2002 01.01.2003
2001
No. 1/2001 Amendment to Protocol A 14.06.2001 01.07.2001
2000
No. 4/2000 Introduction of a new Protocol D 16.11.2000 09.02.2004
No. 3/2000 Amendment to Annex II 16.11.2000 16.11.2000
No. 2/2000 Amendments to Annex I 16.11.2000 01.01.2001
No. 1/2000 Amendments to Protocol B 16.11.2000 01.01.2001
1999
No. 1/1999 Amendments to Protocol B 28.09.1999 01.01.2000
1998
No. 9/1998 Deletion of Annex VI (Customs duties of a fiscal nature) 01.07.1998 01.07.1998
No. 8/1998 Deletion of Annex V 01.07.1998 01.01.1999
No. 7/1998 Amendment to Annex IV (deleted by Decision No. 1/2004) 01.07.1998 01.01.1999
No. 6/1998 Amendment to Protocol B 01.07.1998 01.02.2000
No. 5/1998 Amendment to Annex I 01.07.1998 01.07.1998
No. 4/1998 Amendment to Article 15 and new Annex XII on Protection of Intellectual Property 04.02.1998 19.12.2002
No. 3/1998 Amendment of Article 10 and deletion of Annex IX concerning Technical Regulations 04.02.1998 19.12.2002
No. 2/1998 Amendment to Annex VIII (deleted by Decision No. 2/2004) 04.02.1998 04.02.1998
No. 1/1998 Deletion of Annex III 04.02.1998 04.02.1998
1996
No. 4/1996 Amendment to Article 35 concerning the depositary of the Agreement 18/19.04.1996 19.12.2002
No. 3/1996 Amendment to Annex VIII (deleted by Decision No. 2/2004) 18/19.04.1996 19.04.1996
No. 2/1996 Deletion of Annex VII 18/19.04.1996 19.04.1996
No. 1/1996 Amendment to Annex VI (deleted by Decision No. 9/1998) 18/19.04.1996 19.04.1996
1993
No. 2/1993 Amendments to, and corrections of technical errors in Annexes and Protocols to the Agreement 22/23.11.1993 23.11.1993
No. 1/1993 State Aid - Rules for the implementation of Article 18, para. 4 22/23.11.1993 23.11.1993
1992
No. 4/1992 Amendment to Annex II on fish and other marine products 19.11.1992 19.11.1992
No. 3/1992 Amendments to, and corrections of technical errors in Annexes and Protocols to the Agreement 19.11.1992 19.11.1992
No. 2/1992 Establishment of a Sub-Committee on customs and origin matters 19.11.1992 19.11.1992
No. 1/1992 Rules of Procedure of the Joint Committee 19.11.1992 19.11.1992

 

Head of Trade Relations Coordination
Trade Relations Division

+41 223322 602